Personality, Individual
Differences & Intelligence


By John Maltby, et al.
June 2007
Distributed By Trans-Atlantic Publications, Inc.
Pearson / Prentice Hall
ISBN: 9780131297609
661 Pages, Illustrated
$99.50 paper original


Highly engaging and lively in presentation, this thought provoking text introduces students to the major theories, methods, research findings and debates in Personality, Individual Differences and Intelligence. 

Contents
Part 1   Personality

Chapter 1   Personality Theory in Context
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes 
Introduction
General population perspectives: implicit personality theories
Problems with implicit theories
How is personality defined?
Lay definitions of personality
Psychological definitions of personality
The aims of studying personality
The source of the term 'personality'
Approaches to studying personality: idiographic versus nomothetic
Describing personality 
Distinctions and assertions in personality research
Effects of personality versus situational effects
Measurement issues
Strands of personality theorising
The clinical approach and its history
Individual differences emphasis on personality and its history
Studying personality as a personal experience
Reading critically and evaluating theories
The cultural context of personality theories
Final comments
Summary
Going Further
Suggestions for further reading
Web links
Connecting Up

Chapter 2   The Basis of the Psychoanalytic Approach to Personality 
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Description of Freud's theory of personality
Levels of consciousness
The nature of human beings and the source of human motivation
The structure of the personality
The development of personality
Defence mechanisms
Repression
Denial
Projection
Reaction formation
Rationalisation
Conversion reaction
Phobic avoidance
Displacement
Regression
Isolation
Undoing
Sublimation
Clinical Applications of Freudian theory
Evaluation of Freudian theory
Description
Explanation
Empirical validity and testable concepts
Comprehensiveness
Parsimony
Heuristic value
Applied value
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion points
Essay questions
Going Further
Suggestions for further reading
Web links
Film and literature
Connecting Up

Chapter 3   Developments of Freudian Theorising
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Individual psychology of Alfred Adler
Inferiority feelings
Personality development in Adlerian terms
Birth order
Characteristics of the neurotic personality
Adlerian treatment approaches
Evaluation of Adler's individual psychology theory
Carl Jung and analytic psychology
Structures within the psyche
Jungian personality types
Jung's conception of mental illness and its treatment 
Evaluation of Jung's theory
The psychology of Karen Horney
Essentials of Horney's theoretical position
The development of the personality and the neurotic personality
Defence mechanisms
Penis envy and female masochism
Evaluation of Horney's theory
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Suggestions for further reading
Web links
Film and literature
Connecting Up

Chapter 4   Learning Theory Perspectives on Personality
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Introduction to learning theory
The clinical perspective within classical conditioning
The radical behaviourism of B. F. Skinner
Attempts to apply learning theory approaches to personality 
The stimulus-response model of personality of dollard and miller
Albert Bandura and social learning theory 
Learning within Bandura's model
Personality development in social learning theory
Self-efficacy as a self-regulatory process
Increasing self-efficacy ratings
Measuring self-efficacy
Julian Rotter and locus of control
The impact of locus of control on behaviour
Walter Mischel
The impact of Mischel
Evaluation of learning theory approaches
Description
Explanation
Empirical validity
Testable concepts
Comprehensiveness
Parsimony
Heuristic value
Applied value
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Suggestions for further reading
Web links
Film and literature
Connecting Up

Chapter 5   Cognitive Personality Theories
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Theory of personal constructs of George A. Kelly
The view of the person in Kelly's theory
Concepts within Kelly's theory
Personality development according to Kelly
Assessing personality in personal construct theory
Clinical applications of personal construct theory
Albert Ellis and Rational-Emotive Behaviour therapy
Origins of the theory of Rational Emotive Behaviour therapy
Rational and irrational thoughts
The importance of perception and the subjective world view
Development of the individual
The basic model of rational emotive behaviour therapy
Sources of psychological disturbance
Applications of rational emotive behavioural therapy
Research evidence for effectiveness of rational emotive behavioural therapy
Overall evaluation of cognitive approaches
Description
Explanation
Empirical validity
Testable concepts
Comprehensiveness
Parsimony
Heuristic value
Applied value
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Questions for discussion
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Film and literature
Connecting Up

Chapter 6   Humanistic Personality Theories
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Historical roots and key elements of the humanistic approach
Abraham Maslow and self-actualisation
Human nature and human motivation
Hierarchy of needs
Discussion of basic needs
Characteristics of self-actualisers
Personality development
Mental illness and its treatment in Maslow's approach
Evaluation of Maslow's theory
Carl Rogers and person-centred therapy
Basic principles underlying the theory
Self-actualisation
Effect of society on self-actualisation
Developmental impact on the child of their parent's self-concept
The role of the actualising tendency in development
Rogers' conceptualisation of psychological problems
The principles of Rogerian counselling
The role of the therapist or counsellor
Evaluation of Rogers' theory
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Books
Web links
Film and literature
Connecting Up

Chapter 7   The Trait Approach to Personality
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Emergence of personality traits
Defining personality traits
The development of trait theories within psychology 
Sheldon and somatypes
Early lexical approaches to personality and the lexical hypothesis
Gordon Allport
Raymond Cattell and the emergence of the factor analytic approach
Types of traits
Contribution of Cattell
Hans Eysenck's trait theory of personality
Eysenck's structure of personality
Research evidence for Eysenck's types
Psychopathology and Eysenck's therapeutic approach
Eysenck's contribution to trait theorising
The five factor model
Evidential sources for the five-factor model
Evaluation of the big five and trait approaches
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Books and journals
Web sources
Film and literature
Connecting Up

Chapter 8   Biological Basis of Personality I:
Genetic Heritability of Personality and Biological and

Physiological Models of Personality
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Behavioural genetics
Behavioural genetics: basic ideas
How the influence of genes is assessed in behaviour genetics
Methods for assessing genetic heritability of personality
Genetic heritability estimates and personality
Considerations within behavioural genetics and personality
Conceptions of genetic heritability and the environment
Different types of genetic variance
Shared and non-shared environments
Problems with the representativeness of twin and adoption studies
Assortative mating
Changing world of genetics
A framework for considering heritability in personality
Psychophysiology, neuropsychology and personality
Eysenck's biological model of personality and arousal
Gray's bas/bis theory
Cloninger's biological model of personality
Empirical evidence for biological theories of personality
The central nervous system and biological personality dimensions
The autonomic nervous system and biological personality dimensions
Consideration of biological theories of personality
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web
Literature/Film
Connecting Up

Chapter 9   Biological Basis of Personality II:
Evolutionary Psychology and Animal Studies of Personality

Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Evolutionary theory
Evolutionary psychology and adaptation
The use of evolutionary psychology in understanding behavior
Evolutionary personality and personality and individual differences Psychology
An introduction to evolutionary personality psychology: Buss' theory of personality and adaptation
How individual differences arise through co-operation: the example of leadership
Life history and personality
Consideration of the evolutionary theory of personality
Animals and their personality
Animals and personality: A historical context
Within-species versus cross-species
Methods in animal personality research
Reliability and validity of animal personality research
Animal personality: the emergence of the five factor model of animal personality: informing evolutionary theories of personality?
Consideration of animal personality research
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion points
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Connecting Up

Part 2   Intelligence

Chapter 10   An Introduction to Intelligence
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Why does intelligence matter?
Implicit theories of intelligence
Research into implicit theories of intelligence
Lay-persons' implicit theories across cultures
Implicit theories of intelligence across the lifespan
Expert conceptions of intelligence
A task force in intelligence!
The focus of this section of the book
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion question
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 11   Theories and Measurement of Intelligence
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
The birth of the psychology of intelligence: Galton and Binet
Galton
Binet
The search for measurement continues: the birth of 'IQ' and standardised Testing
Terman
Yerkes
General intelligence 'g': The theory and the measurement
'g'
Measuring 'g': the Wechsler and Raven's matrices
Multi-factor theorists: Thurstone, Cattell and Guilford
Louis L. Thurstone: 'g' results from 7 primary mental abilities
Raymond Cattell: fluid and crystallised intelligence
Guilford: many different intelligences and many different combinations
Intelligence and factor analysis -- a third way: the hierarchal approach
Vernon
Carroll: from the three-stratum model of human cognitive abilities to CHC
Cattell, Horn and Carroll (CHC): theory, research and practice together
Other theories of intelligence: Gardner and Sternberg
 Howard Gardner: multiple intelligences
 Robert Sternberg
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 12   Intelligence Tests: What Do Scores on Intelligence Tests Reflect?
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Types of intelligence tests
The distinction between psychometric and the cognitive psychology approach to intelligence testing
Simple biological and physiological based measures of intelligence
Alexander Romanovich Luria
Das and Naglieri's cognitive assessment system and the Kaufmans'
The features, uses and problems that surround intelligence tests
Typical features of intelligence tests
The uses of intelligence tests
Problem and issues with intelligence tests
The intelligent use of intelligence tests
Some concluding comments
The Flynn effect
How was the Flynn effect discovered?
Explanations of the Flynn effect
The nutrition hypothesis versus the cognitive stimulation hypothesis
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 13   Heritability and Socially Defined Race Differences in Intelligence
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Intelligence: the nature versus nurture debate
Galton
Heritability of intelligence
What do we mean by heritability of intelligence?
Methods for assessing genetic heritability of intelligence
Heritability estimates of intelligence
Considerations within behavioural genetics and intelligence
Modern estimates of the genetic heritability of intelligence
Environmental influences on intelligence
Biological variables and maternal effects
Nutrition
Lead
Prenatal factors
Maternal effects model
Family environment
Shared and non-shared environments
Within family factors
Our socio-economic status of the family
Birth order, family size and intelligence
Education and intelligence
Culture and intelligence
Final comments on genetic heritability and environmental influences on Intelligence
The bell curve
The bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life
The cognitive elite: looking at the higher end of the bell curve
Criticisms of the bell curve: intelligence and class structure in American life
Analysis of the assumptions used by Herrnstein and Murray in their analysis
Statistical and research problems in the bell curve arguments
A darker side of psychology related to Herrnstein and Murray's analysis
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 14   Sex Differences in Intelligence: Spatial Intelligence
and Emotional Intelligence

Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Sex Differences in intelligence
Sex differences on measures of general intelligence
Sex differences in specific intelligences
Looking for explanations for sex differences in measures of intelligence
Biological explanations for sex differences in intelligence
Biological variables for sex differences in measures of general intelligence
Biological variables for sex differences in spatial intelligence
Summary of biological factors in sex differences in intelligence
Environmental factors
Stereotypes on sex differences in intelligence outside of education
Stereotypes on sex differences in intelligence within education
Interactions between technology and socio-economic status and their influence on intelligence in the classroom
A final consideration of sex differences in measures of intelligence
Stereotype emphasis
Placing the extent of the sex differences in intelligence within its proper context
Interim summary
Emotional intelligence
Salovey and Mayer's four branch model of emotional intelligence
Goleman's model of emotional intelligence
Bar-On's model of emotional intelligence:
Providing contexts for understanding the three models of emotional intelligence 
Sex differences in emotional intelligence
Critical consideration of emotional intelligence theory and research
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 15   The Application of Personality and Intelligence in
Education and the Workplace

Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Personality and intelligence predictors of achievement in education and the workplace
Established measures of personality and intelligence: predictors of achievement in education and work
The difficulties with using established measures of personality and intelligence in education and work
Learning styles and Experiential Learning Theory (ELT)
Learning processes
Learning styles
Application and measurement of learning processes and styles
Critical consideration of Kolb's theory
Emotional intelligence in education and the workplace
Goleman's theory of emotional intelligence
Emotional intelligence and leadership
Emotional intelligence and self-learning
Consideration of emotional intelligence in education and the workplace
Successful intelligence and leadership: creativity, intelligence and wisdom
Creativity
Wisdom
Giftedness
Giftedness, termites and IQ scores
Modern conceptions of giftedness: not just high IQ?
Psychological models of giftedness
Summary of giftedness
Working with those with learning disabilities
Working with those with learning disabilities: the darker historical line
Working with those with learning disabilities: the positive historical line
Feuerstein and structural cognitive modifiability
Theory and programme of structural cognitive modifiability
Concluding remarks
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Essay questions
Going Further 
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Part 3   Individual Differences

Chapter 16   An Introduction to Applied Individual Differences
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Individual differences can be applied to improve our understanding of psychological concepts
The nature of individual differences
How are individual differences identified and measured?
How individual differences can be applied to improve our understanding of competing or overlapping concepts or topics areas
Comparing theories
Combining theories
How individual differences is applied to demonstrate its usefulness within the psychology of human experience
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion points
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 17   Optimism
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Learned optimism -- explanatory style
Learned helplessness versus learned optimism
The ABC format
Distraction and disputation
Dispositional optimism
The life orientation test (a measure of dispositional optimism)
Optimism and well-being
Coping and appraisals
Optimism and well-being
Optimism: a cloud in the silver lining?
Situational optimism
Hope
Benefits of hope
Measurement of hope
A consideration of false hope
Optimism versus 'positive thinking'
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion points
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Film and literature
Connecting Up

Chapter 18   Irrational Beliefs
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
The basic theory of Rational Emotive Behaviour therapy (REBT)
The ABCs of human disturbance
"Must-urbatory" thinking and disturbance
Irrational beliefs and mental health
Irrational beliefs and individual differences
Issues with irrational beliefs that need to be considered and addressed
The case for and against religion
The case for and against luck: The importance of belief in good luck
Superstitious beliefs
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion points
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up
 
Chapter 19   Embarrassment, Shyness and Social Anxiety
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Introducing social anxieties and social anxiety disorder
What exactly social anxiety disorder?
General symptoms, prevalence and conceptions of social anxiety Disorder
Definitions and diagnosis of social anxiety disorder
What causes social anxiety disorder?
Shyness
What is shyness?
The consequences of shyness
State versus trait shyness
State shyness
Trait shyness
Shyness and personality
Shyness, genetics and behavioural inhibition
Fearful and self-conscious shyness
Self-conscious shyness and attribution style
Shyness and culture
Embarrassment
Four theories of embarrassment
Re-evaluation of the embarrassment models
Categorisation of embarrassing situations
Embarrassment, measurement and personality
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Discussion points
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 20   Interpersonal Relationships
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Interpersonal attraction
Theories of interpersonal attraction
Fatal attraction
Love styles
The triangular theory of love
Love styles (or the colours of love)
Individual and group differences in love styles
Romantic love and attachment styles
Relationship dissolution
The investment model
How individuals initiate the end of a relationship
How individuals react when the other person initiates the end of the relationship
Introducing forgiveness
What is forgiveness?
Models of the forgiveness process
The Enright model of forgiveness
The Worthington (pyramidal) model
Attachment and forgiveness
Forgiveness and personality
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion questions
Possible essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web sources
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Chapter 21   Social Attitudes
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Right-wing authoritarianism, conservatism, and social dominance
Authoritarianism
Conservatism
Social dominance orientation
Right-wing attitudes and personality
Right-wing attitudes and Eysenck's theory of personality
Five factor theory of personality and conservatism
Critical consideration of right-wing attitudes theory
Religion
Dimensions of religiosity
Religion and mental health
Religion and personality
Religion, personality, coping and mental health
Critical review
Final comments
Summary
Critical Thinking
Class discussion points
Essay questions
Going Further
Further reading
Web links
Literature and film
Connecting Up

Part 4   Supplementary Material

Chapter 22   Academic Argument and Thinking
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
The structure of arguments: premises and conclusions
Deductive versus inductive arguments
Fallacies in arguments
The fallacies of the undistributed middle
The fallacy of affirming the consequent
Argument directed at the person (argumentum ad hominem [argument directed at the man])
Appealing to ignorance or absence of fact (argumentum ad ignorantiam [argument from ignorance])
Appeal to popular beliefs (argumentum ad populum [argument from the people])
Appeal to emotion (argumentum ad misericordiam [Argument from pity])
False dilemma
Comparing populations
Summary
Going Further
Answers to the Reflective Exercise

Chapter 23   Statistical Terms
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Tests of associations
Correlation coefficents
Factor analysis
Multiple regression
Tests of difference
Tests of difference for two sets of scores
Tests of difference for more than two sets of scores
Meta-analysis
Effect size
Summary

Chapter 24   Psychometric Testing
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
Reliability
Internal reliability (internal consistency)
Test-restest reliability (reliability over time)
Validity
Types and uses of psychometric tests
Summary

Chapter 25   Research Ethics
Key Themes
Learning Outcomes
Introduction
What do we mean by research ethics?
Why do we need ethical codes?
Basic principles for ethical research
Research studies have to comply with all legal requirements
Research participants
NHS and social services / social care research
Ethical principles for conducting research with human participants (The British Psychological Society)

Research ethics summary
Glossary
References
Index

Features

·Each chapter opens with Learning outcomes, a list of key themes and a real world example to engage students and help them manage their study.
· Stop and think boxes encourage students to reflect on what they have just read
· Profile boxes ensure students are informed of key figures and thinkers
·Critical thinking boxes encourage students to question theories and arguments and develop skills in critical thinking
·Discussion questions, essay questions and an annotated guide to further reading encourage students to consolidate and develop their understanding to a higher level
·‘Connecting up’ draws attention to links between different areas of psychology and topics covered in the book



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